戴斌:共商、共建、共享 优质旅游新格局_中国旅游研究院
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戴斌:共商、共建、共享 优质旅游新格局
    2018-5-28 8:15:18     字号:[    ]



尊敬的中国文化和旅游部李金早副部长,

尊敬的联合国世界旅游组织祝善忠执行主任,

各位市长,

女士们、先生们,

2017年5月15日,习近平主席在“一带一路”国际合作高峰论坛圆桌峰会上的开幕致辞中提出“共商、共建、共享”原则,对共享经济时代如何发展优质旅游同样具有现实的指导意义。

共享经济和全域旅游时代,发展城市优质旅游需要共商共识。在一个经济开放体系中,在一个人员自由流动的社会里,城市日益成为本地市民和外来游客共享的生活空间。市民对这块空间有就业、消费和休闲的需求,企业有生产、物流和盈利的需求,员工有收入增长和职业尊严的需求,当然,游客也有来到这里欣赏美丽风景和分享美好生活的需求。这么多的需求汇聚到一起,就需要政府提供相应的基础设施和公共服务。或者说,政府在提供基础设施和公共服务的时候,得统筹考虑本地市场和外来游客的现实需求。我们应当,也必须承认,这么多的利益相关者,会有共同目标和一致行动,也会有差异,还会有矛盾,甚至冲突。

比如郑州的国棉一厂、健康路、丰庆路等著名夜市,各式小吃风味独特,物美价廉,是市民纳凉休闲的好去处。结果携程、马蜂窝、穷游、路书和美团大众点评把它们在网上一推荐,游客蜂拥而至,愈发热闹了。应当说这是好事儿,客流量多了,商家可以赚更多钱,政府可以有更多的税收,城市知名度也可以借此拉升。可是也会带来物价上涨、环境整治、社会治安和网络关注的压力,需要政府更多的公共投入,低收入阶层还可能会产生“热闹是他们的,我什么也没有”的弱参与感。这种现象在景区建设、主题街区开发和城市形象提升,特别是经济欠发达的旅游城市发展进程中普遍存在。甚至香港这样的国际化大都市,也会存在到访游客越来越多,消费越来越高,但是社区居民特别是草根阶层的年轻人却越来越无感的现象。

怎么办?无论是城市旅游发展的战略决策,还是项目投资、业态布局和产品创新,最好的办法是大家商量着来,好事要办好,也要好好办。值此大众旅游新时代和全域旅游新方位,城市旅游已经从早期的景区、酒店和旅行社为主的封闭世界,走向与经济社会协调发展、紧密互动的开放体系。无论是旅游资源开发、项目建设、市场推广,还是中长期发展战略的制订与实施,都应有扎实的社会调研和压力测试,广泛开展座谈、走访、信息公开、媒体宣传和行政部署。值此游客诉求开始从“有没有”转向“好不好”的大众旅游新阶段,旅游业正在从高速度增长走向高质量发展,也就是我们所倡导的优质旅游新时代。如果没有广泛的民意认同,没有社会力量的协同,优质旅游就不可能持续发展的环境基础。新时代城市旅游发展应当且必须以最大的诚意,尽最大的努力,寻求最大社会公约数。  


各位市长,女士们、先生们,

共享经济和全域旅游时代,发展城市优质旅游需要共建共行。今天的旅游绝不是跟着导游的小旗子逛景区、听讲解那么简单。实际上,从行前的目的地信息收集和消费决策开始,游客就开始与城市形象打交道了。现在的城市形象不仅是旅游宣传推广机构的事情,还取决于经济社会发展阶段的城市底色,取决于商务和休闲旅行者在全球范围内的文明形象,取决于社交网络上的民意汇集。很多时候,游客是否选择某座城市,并不是因为你是否在时代广场和中央电视台重金打了形象广告,而是因为一首《加州旅馆》、《卡萨布兰卡》、《成都》这样的经典流行,或者因为你邀请了全城的流浪汉到五星级酒店免费享受了一次大企业放弃的正式晚餐。游客愿意并能够感受到的城市品质,可能并不是那些精美绝伦的大场面,不是警车开道的特权享受,不是用咬着筷子训练出来的八颗洁白牙齿,而是来自移民局官员发自内心的微笑和真诚的欢迎,来自共享汽车司机的安全感,来自Airbnb、途家等共享住宿平台的诚信和互动,来自广场舞大妈脸上洋溢的幸福。这样的城市形象和游客感知,是城市整体由内而外散发出的气质,它必须,也只能由行政主体与市场主体、社会机构和社区居民共同建设,相向而行。

旅游与经济社会发展诸要素理当共融共生,创新发展,城市旅游尤其如此。旅游与文化、科技、教育、制造、金融、农业农村等领域的融合发展,可以概括为“旅游+”,也可以称之为“+旅游”。经历了需求驱动的自发成长期,以及资源开发的产业成熟期,今天的城市旅游已经进入了生活引领和内容创造的新时代。在这个进程中,城市居民、生产者、商家和公共机构当然是主导力量。同时也要看到,游客在欣赏美丽风景和分享美好生活的同时,也以多元的视角打量本地生活,以多样的动力与本地居民共同推进动城市文明的演化。学会倾听游客的声音,让城市成为多元文化与共同价值协调发展的新空间,无疑是明智的选择。

游客也是城市优质旅游的建设者和同行者。中国有句古话,“女为悦己者容、士为知己者死”,在行使旅游权利的时候,也要发自内心地尊重公务人员、企业员工和社区居民。如果抱着把一切都视作理所当然,甚至居高临下的心态,再好的服务,再高的品质也可能会视而不见的。学会尊重当地的法律和风俗,欣赏别人的劳动成果,尽可能“得理也饶人”,我们才可能感受旅游的品质,才可能在行走时成为当地人眼中的风景。当然,城市管理者、企业员工和社区居民也要有意识营造文明的待客氛围和品质的生活空间。


各位市长,女士们、先生们,

共享经济和全域旅游时代,发展城市优质旅游需要共享共感

经常会有媒体和同行问我最喜欢哪一座城市?这确是“选择一个,得罪一百”的棘手问题,考虑到今天的主题是“优质旅游”,是当着各位市长的面公布答案的时候了。

我喜欢的城市是优雅、时尚而有活力的。就像哈里王子和梅根在温莎城堡举办的童话婚礼,每一个细节都透着讲究,每一个镜头都在吸引全世界的关注,告诉我们每一个人“爱的力量”。我注意到婚礼是在年轻人创造的情人节前一天即5月19日举行的,这一天也是第八个“中国旅游日”。城市是文明的产物,是传承文化、传播文化和创造文化的中心,也是以美好生活吸引各地游客到访的品质之城。事实上,美好生活已经成为优质旅游的新动力。我注意到郑州举办了“时尚买手节”,用潮流为城市带节奏;位于开封的河南大学推出了“航拍毕业照,青春不NG”,用科技和创意见证青春;西安的最高领导人带头捡拾地上的烟头,用“抖音”为城市“打Call”。这就很好啊!要知道对于郑州、开封、西安这样背负了千年历史文化的名城来说,哪怕能够展示些微的时尚与活力都是值得报以掌声的努力。须知,游客也好,市民也罢,要的是触手可及的温暖,而不仅仅是繁华的记忆。

我喜欢的城市是商业的、感性的,拥有最温暖的万丈红尘。旅游是人类的基本权利,是异地的生活方式。回到生活本身,人们需要吃饭、睡觉、上厕所,需要出行、购物、看演出,需要交流和获得必要的协助。在市场经济社会时,这些需要的满足基本上表现为付费的商品或服务,比如酒店、餐馆、咖啡馆、出租车、共享单车、商场、精品店、美容美发美甲的小店,等等。从世界旅游发展经验来看,完善的商业环境以及由此而生的品质生活,日益成为城市旅游竞争力的关键要素。在共享经济和智慧旅游时代,城市的商业环境越完善,越是国际或区域性的消费中心,游客就越愿意到访,而且体验感和满意度就越高。请各位市长一定要将面向生活的商家纳入到当代旅游发展体系中,一定要善待投资者、运营商和创业创新者。不管他们是外地的大企业家,还是本地的小业主,都是城市旅游的活跃因素,都是优质旅游的底层器件。

我喜欢的城市是善意的、平等的,也是包容的。作为城市的管理者,能否给予小商小贩讨生活的空间?至少,城管执法的时候不要与他们发生肢体冲突。能否给予街头艺术家以必要的创作空间?至少,他们在一些要拆迁的墙壁上涂鸭的时候,就以艺术的名义多保留一段时间。能否给“低端人口”以应有的尊重?至少,在以城市发展的名义让他们离开的时候,告诉他们还可以去哪里。一座城市能够容纳流浪者的尊严,我相信也一定能够给予千千万万的游客以真正的品质感。





Extensive Consultation, Joint Efforts, and Shared Benefits: Exploring the New Pattern of Quality Tourism Development

—— Keynote speech at the International Mayor’s Forum on Tourism

 

Dear Vice Minister Li Jinzao of Ministry of Culture and Tourism of the People’s Republic of China,

Dear Executive Director Zhu Shanzhong of the World Tourism Organization,

Dear Mayors,

Ladies and Gentlemen,

On May 15, 2017, in his address at the Leaders Roundtable of the Belt and Road Forum for International Cooperation, President Xi Jinping proposed the principle of “Extensive Consultation, Joint Efforts, and Shared Benefits”, which is also of significance for the practices of quality tourism development in the era of sharing economy.   

In the era of sharing economy and all-for-one tourism, the development of urban quality tourism needs extensive consultation and wide agreement.In an opening economic system, people can move freely, and urban area is becoming a living space shared by local people and incoming tourists. In this space, local people have the demands for employment, consumption, and leisure, enterprises for production, logistics, and profit-making, and employees for income-increasing and pursuit of career dignity; and of course, tourists also have the demands for appreciation of beautiful scenery and sharing of wonderful life. Taking all these demands into account, the government should provide the supporting infrastructures and public services. In other words, when providing infrastructures and public services, the government should consider both the local people’s practical demands and the incoming tourists’ realistic demands. Nevertheless, we should and must admit it is almost impossible for so diversity of people to target the same goals and take the same actions; and there may be differences, contradictions, or even conflicts.

Let me take Zhengzhou for example. It is well-known that there are somepopular night markets at the First State-owned Cotton Mill, Jiankang Road, and Fengqing Road where local people can enjoy in their spare time a variety of snacks with special deliciousness and reasonable price. Thanks to the online promotion by Ctrip, Mafengwo, Gyer, Lushu, and Meituan-Dianping, those night markets are also being visited by more and more tourists. We can say this is not bad, because more tourists could bring more profits for the business people, and more taxation for the government, and increasing popularity for the city. However, this may also result in some challenges. For instance, there may be thepressures of price-rising, environment protection, public security, and netizen opinion, and more investment in public services by the government, as well as the complaint of lower income group that “the prosperity is none of our business, for we get nothing from it.” These challengesareoftenseen in scenic area construction, theme street development, and city image improvement, especially in the tourism development in economically-underdeveloped cities. Or even in an international metropolis like Hong Kong, tourists-increasing leads to rising price, and then local people, especially the youths at grassroot level, are more and more disappointed with the feeling of losing.

So, how shall we face such challenges? The best way is that we could seek for extensive consultation and choose the best option in the public investment, industrial planning, and product innovation. In the new era of mass tourism and under the new orientation of all-for-one tourism, urban tourism is transforming from the previous closed world centered around scenic area, hotel, and travel agency to an opening system with harmonious economic and social development and close interpersonal interaction. We should carry out well-planned social surveys, take pressure tests, hold extensive talks, and ensure constant visits, information publication, media promotion, and administrative plan. Those are either for tourism resource development, project construction and marketing promotion, or for formulation and implementation of medium-term and long-term development strategies. In the new era of mass tourism, tourists are asking more questions about quality than those about quantity, and rapid growth is giving way to quality development in tourism industry, which means that we are going into the new era of quality tourism. Without wide acknowledgement of the public and cooperation with all walks of life, quality tourism couldn’t have an environment for sustainable development. In this new era, urban tourism development should and must seek for the greatest social common divisor with the greatest sincerity and the most efforts.  


Dear Mayors, Ladies and Gentlemen,

In the era of sharing economy and all-for-one tourism, the development of urban quality tourism needs joint efforts. Nowadays, taking a tour doesn’t simply means following the small flag of a guide and sightseeing whiling listening guide words. In fact, from gathering information about a destination and making decision on consumption, tourists have begun to know the image of a city, which is comprehensively dependent on the workof tourism promotion agency,urban impression in the stage of economic and social development, the civilized behaviors of business travelers and tourists in global context, and public opinions from social medias. Sometimes, tourists choose a city not because its image is advertised at the Time Square or on CCTV, but because they are touched afterlistening a classic song such as Hotel California, Casablanca, or Chengdu, or because you would invite all homeless people in the city to a free dinner at a five-star hotel which were given up by a large enterprise. Tourists will like and can feel the quality of a city, which is probably not in thegrand spectacle, the privilege of escorting by police cars, or the professionally-trained smile, but in the welcoming smile from the bottom of an immigration officer’s heart, the safety of a shared car driver, the trust and interaction of shared housing platforms such as Airbnb and Tujia, or the happy smiles on the faces of square dancers. The image of a city perceived by tourists is acomprehensive quality demonstrated form the inner and the outer of the city. It must and only could jointly shaped with joint efforts of the government, market, social organization, and local people.  

Tourism, especially urban tourism, and the elements of economic and social development should be integrated and fostered in innovation. The integration of tourism with culture, science and technology, education, manufacture, finance, agriculture and farming village, and other sectors can be generalized as “tourism plus” or “plus tourism”. Urban tourism had undergone the era ofself-growing driven by demand and the era of industrial maturity oriented by resource development. Today it is entering into a new era of life-leading and content creation. In this era, local people, producers, business entities, and public institutions are of course the leading powers of urban tourism. Meanwhile, we should know that tourists not only appreciate beautiful scenery and share wonderful living space, but also observe local life from different angles; and as multiple powers, they are together with local people in advancing the evolution of urban civilization. It is wise to learn how to listen to the voices of tourists and develop city into a new space with harmonious development of multiculturalism and common values.

Tourists are also the contributors and witnesses of urban quality tourism. Chinahas an old saying, “Ladies try to look good for those who love them, and gentlemen die for those who appreciate them.” If tourists really love a city, when exercising the right to tourism, they would respect to the civil servants, employees, and local people. If taking all things for granted, or even having a sense of arrogance, they may be probably indifferent to the best service and highest quality. We should abide by laws and regulations and respect local customs, appreciate others’ achievements, and forgive others whenever possible, so that we could feel the quality of tourism and become civilized tourists in the eyes of local people. Of course, city administrators, employees and local people should also try to create an atmosphere of friendly welcoming and a spaceof good life.


Dear Mayors, Ladies and Gentlemen,

In the era of sharing economy and all-for-one tourism, the developmentof urban quality tourismneeds the sense of sharing.

I’m oftenasked by medias or colleagues: “Which is your favorite city?” This question is hard to answer, because I have so many favorite cities, and it is difficult to say which one I prefer most. Today we are talking about “quality tourism”, and here, in front of dear Mayors, I would like to say which kind of cities that I like most.

I like cities with elegance, fashion, and vitality. Recently we knew about Prince Harry and Meghan Markle’s royal wedding at Windsor Castle, in which every detail was artistic, and every shot attracted the attention from the world. From this wedding, we could strongly feel “the power of love”. I noticed that the wedding was held on May 19, a day before May 20 when many Chinese youths celebrated an unofficial lovers’ day just because this day sounds like “I love you” in Chinese. The wedding day was also accidentally identical to China tourism day. We know that city is a produce of civilization and a hub of cultural creation, communication, and transmission, as well as a space of good life which attracts tourists from other places. In fact, good life has become a new drive for quality tourism. I noticed that Zhengzhou held “Fashion Buyer Festival”, by which fashion was rhythmic with urban development. Henan University in Kaifeng promoted the slogan of “graduating studentstake photos with aerial photography, and youth has no gap”, by which youth was witnessed with technology and innovation. The chief leader of Xi’an City in person picked up cigarette butts on streets and cheered for the city with short video on Douyin app. These all were greatly extraordinary! We know that Zhengzhou, Kaifeng, and Xi’an are among the list of national famous historical and cultural cities in China. Yet it would be highly encouraging if they have some modern fashions and vitalities. We should know that both tourists and local people want not the prosperous memory but the tangible warm.

I like cities with commercial prosperity, humanistic feeling, and the warmest life reality. Tourism is a basic right of human being and a way of life in another place. Speaking life itself, people need eating, sleeping, going washroom, traveling, shopping, watching show, communication, and necessary assistance. In market economy, these needs are basically fulfilled with paid commodities or services, such as hotel, restaurant, café, taxi, shared bicycle, shopping mall, boutique, and beauty shop. Observing from the experience of international tourism development, we can see that good commercial environment and quality life from this environment are becoming the key factor of urban tourism competitiveness. In the era of sharing economy and smart tourism, cities with better urban commercial environments, or those as the international or regional centers of consumption, could attract more tourists, because they could ensure stronger feeling of experience and higher degree of satisfaction. It is advised that every Mayor could include business entities in the system of contemporary tourism development, be kind to investors, managers, entrepreneurs, and innovators. They may be famous business people from outside or local small business owners. They are all the active factors of urban tourism as well as the primary contributors of quality tourism.

I like cities with kindness, fairness, and inclusiveness. Let us think a couple of questions. The first is that whether we, as the city administrators, could provide the small tradespeople and peddlerswith a living space. At least, urban managers in law enforcement should have no physical conflict with them. Another question is that whether we could providestreet artists with the necessary space for artistic creation. At least, if a wall to be dismantled is found with any creative painting by street artists, for the sake of art, we should preserve the wall and the work for some time. The third question is that whether we have the appropriate respect to the “low class population”? At least, we should provide them with the necessary assistance while asking them to leave because of urban development. It is my belief that if a city could ensure the dignity of the homeless, it could also ensure the provision of quality services for incoming tourists.  


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